PODCAST Montesssori 150: với Maria Montessori

(20/02/2020 - Lượt xem: 205)

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PODCAST với Maria Montessori   (thu thanh Ngày 31, tháng 10, năm 1936)
Maria Montessori  cổ vũ cho Quyền của Trẻ Em trên đài phát thanh của Hà Lan trong một cuôc phỏng vấn bởi Gustav Czopp , ngày 31 October 1936 (tiếng Pháp)

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Tóm tắt nội dung phát biểu của Maria Montessori trong cuộc phỏng vấn:

Giáo dục là hỗ trợ cho sự hình thành con người, Tôi tin rằng trong thời kỳ nguy ngập này, chúng ta đang cấp bách cần đến những cá nhân có nhân cách mạnh mẽ về mặt đạo đức và sự thăng bằng. Cần phải bảo vệ “con người” bên trong đứa trẻ thơ.

…Ngày nay, điều quan trọng là xã hội phải nhìn nhận quyền của trẻ thơ. Trẻ thơ, theo luật, phải được xem là một con người, là một công dân có nhiều quyền hơn người lớn, Lẽ dĩ nhiên, đứa trẻ không thể tự vệ và do đó phụ huynh phải làm điều đó…

…Giáo dục nên bắt đầu với người lớn. Cần đánh thức lương tri của xã hội. Cả thê giới phải đứng lên bảo vệ trẻ thơ vì nó sẽ nhận lãnh trách nhiệm về cái gì tốt hay xấu trong xã hội ngày mai. Trẻ thơ là giải pháp thực tiển nhất để cứu rỗi và thúc đẩy sự tiến bộ của văn minh.”

Toàn bộ cuộc phỏng vấn, bản dịch tiếng Anh :

In the early autumn of 1936 Maria Montessori relocated to the Netherlands at the invitation of a former graduate, Ada Pierson. This impactful decision was forced by the Civil War that raged in Spain, a country that had been her main residence for close to twenty years. Montessori did not feel comfortable returning to Barcelona, after the 1936 Congress in Oxford and was delighted when Ada Pierson's offer came to host the family in her parental home for a few months. Montessori education was popular in the Netherlands, the school infrastructure was strong and well developed, there had been an international congress and various courses, all factors we suspect to have been major aspects in reaching the decision to settle in the Netherlands.

The Dutch were of course proud and grateful that Maria Montessori was now part of their society, and yet may have been a little anxious that la Dotoressa would find fault with the Dutch schools. This is why Maria Montessori immediately made it clear in the interview that she had not come to the Netherlands to supervise or monitor existing Montessori schools, but that she was keen to show what her approach to education could mean.


Interviewer: Madame, are you here for a long time?

Maria Montessori: I am here to make Holland my new home and if possible the centre of my activities.

Interviewer: And do you intend to occupy yourself with the Montessori schools that are so numerous here.

Maria Montessori: I do not intend to involve myself directly with the Montessori schools that are already existing, but I want to start new schools that will be under my direct supervision from the beginning. There is already a school in Amsterdam directed by Miss Bienfait and one in Laren which is under my personal direction. I distinguish this school of mine, the one I am directing, from all others and it is called the M.M. Montessori School - that is to say, a school depending directly on myself. I intend to show what I mean by education.

Education is a help for the formation of man. I believe that this critical time urgently requires individuals whose personalities will be morally strong and well-balanced. It is necessary to protect 'the man' within the child. Experience shows that there are laws of psychical development which should be followed in order to guarantee the health of the "spirit" and I shall give practical demonstration of this in my M.M. school.

I consider it very important nowadays that the rights of the child are recognised by society. The child should be considered by laws as a human being, a citizen who has more rights than the adult. Naturally the child cannot defend himself by himself and, therefore, the parents should do that.

Interviewer: Do you means you want to educate the parents?

Maria Montessori: Yes, if you wish. Education should really start with the adult. It is necessary to awaken the public conscience. The entire world should rise in defence of the child because he will be responsible for the good or bad in tomorrow's society. Already in many countries, for example, there is a Ministry for Childhood. I think that if there is a Ministry of Post and Telegraphs, A Ministry of Communication, etc., it is much more necessary to have a Ministry for the defence and protection of the Human Race.

On this subject I have campaigned many times on radio and carried on a crusade for the social rights of the child. The public has responded warmly to it because the child represents the most practical solution in order to save and to advance civilisation."

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